The following is a list of all the nutrients in Vitaliti and details of their role in our bodies. There are links to published studies and references at the bottom of this page.
1. Vitamin A (Retinyl Palmitate) 800µg 100%
Retinyl palmitate is a form of vitamin A. Your body can easily absorb ingested retinyl palmitate and use it efficiently. It helps maintain optimal eye health. In addition, it is necessary for the proper functioning of your immune system and reproductive system.
2. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine HCL) 25mg 2250%
Vitamin B1 or thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin and a member of the B-group of vitamins. It is essential for releasing energy from the foods you eat. Moreover, your body needs adequate vitamin B1 for the proper functioning of the brain, muscles, and the heart.
An early animal study suggests vitamin B1 supplementation might keep stress from affecting the generation of nerves cells in certain areas of the brain. (1)
3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 25mg 1790%
Vitamin B2 or riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin of the B-group. It is essential for making red blood cells, regulates body growth, and maintains optimal reproductive health.
Moreover, vitamin B2 regulates the activity of the thyroid glands and helps the body release energy from the foods you eat. (2)
4. Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide) 25mg 156%
Vitamin B3 or niacinamide is a member of the B-group of vitamins. It is necessary for releasing energy from the foods you take. In people who have received radiation therapy to treat cancer, vitamin B3 helps increase the effect of the therapy. It helps relieve the symptoms of joint disease and regulates blood sugar levels. (3)
5. Vitamin B5 (D-Calcium Pantothenate) 30mg 500%
D-Calcium pantothenate is the calcium salt of vitamin B5, which is also called pantothenic acid. Like other B-vitamins, vitamin B5 is necessary for making blood cells and releasing energy from the foods you take.
Recent studies have revealed that vitamin B5 can work as an effective antioxidant. This might be useful in reducing the levels of substances that cause inflammation. The latter effect can help reduce the risk of narrowing of the blood vessels. (4)
6. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCL) 20mg 1428%
Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine HCL is a water-soluble vitamin of the B-group. Your body needs adequate vitamin B6 for normal brain development and maintaining the health of the nerves and immune system.
Together with other substances such as L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and others, it helps prevent nerve damages in people who have high blood sugar levels. (5)
Women who experience undesirable symptoms, such as fatigue and low moods prior to their periods may benefit from vitamin B6 supplementation. (6)
7. Vitamin B7 (D-Biotin) 300µg 600%
Vitamin B7 or D-biotin is a water-soluble vitamin. Your body cannot make this vitamin, therefore, you need to take enough of it from your diet.
Vitamin B7 keeps your skin and nails healthy. It is necessary for a healthy immune system and proper functioning of the nerves.
In addition, vitamin B7 is important for copying information from hereditary materials to molecules that guide the synthesis of proteins. (7)
8. Vitamin B8 (Inositol) 25mg (no RDA)
Vitamin B8 or inositol is a vitamin-like substance that is one of the major components of cell membranes.
It affects the activity of insulin, a hormone necessary for carrying glucose molecules from the bloodstream to the cells. (8)
Inositol carries messages from a brain chemical called serotonin, which affects the subsequent bodily response. Serotonin regulates mood, therefore, taking inositol can help relieve low moods and anxiety in women before their periods. (9)
9. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) 400µg 200%
Vitamin B9 or folic acid is a type of B-vitamin that dissolves in water. Your body uses vitamin B9 to make red blood cells, maintain brain health, and support infection-fighting immune cells. (10,11)
In pregnant women, folic acid is necessary for the development of the spinal cord of the unborn baby.
10. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 50µg 2000%
Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin a water-soluble vitamin. Your body uses it to make red blood cells, keep the brain cells healthy, and produce molecules that carry genetic information. (12)
Deficiency, though rare, can lead to anemia, abnormal brain cells and reduced size of certain parts of the brain. (13,14)
11. Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic acid) 500 mg 625%
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin with powerful antioxidant properties. It binds to the harmful chemical species called free radicals and counteracts their negative effects.
Human studies have shown that vitamin C helps prevent cartilage loss and slows down the progression of joint diseases. (15,16)
12. Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 15µg 300%
Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is key to maintaining optimal bone health as it helps your body absorb calcium and phosphorus from your diet.
It helps prevent bone loss by preventing the breakdown of bone tissues and subsequent release of calcium into the bloodstream. (17) In addition, vitamin D supplementation (either oral or using an injection) increases bone mass and reduces the risk of falls. (18)
13. Vitamin E (DL-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) 48mg 400%
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin. Among its four forms; alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, the alpha form is more active than the other three. (19) It has widespread physiological functions. It keeps your eyes, skin, reproductive system, brain, and blood healthy.
Most notably, vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, which means it protects cells from the harmful effects of the molecules called free radicals. It also strengthens the body’s infection-fighting mechanism. (20)
14. Vitamin K (Menaquinone) 75µg 100%
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is probably best known as the “antihaemorrhagic vitamin”, which means it stops bleeding. However, vitamin K has a long list of potential health benefits. For example, vitamin K:
15. Calcium (As Gluconate) 25mg 3%
Among numerous minerals found in the human body, calcium is the most abundant. It plays a key role in keeping your bones and teeth strong. In addition, calcium has other health benefits as well. Calcium helps in: (24)
- Forming a blood clot during an injury.
- Tightening and relaxing muscles and blood vessels.
- Producing and releasing hormones, powerful chemicals that regulate organ functions and behaviour.
- Proper communication between nerve cells.
- Maintaining a normal heart rate.
16. Choline L-Bitartrate 12.5mg no RDA
Choline is an essential nutrient for the human body. It is necessary for making a brain chemical called acetylcholine (ACh). (25) ACh is involved in the formation of memories (26) and the proper functioning of the muscles.
In addition, the human body uses choline to make a chemical called betaine. Betaine protects your internal organs and reduces the risk of heart disease. (27)
17. Chromium Picolinate 120µg 300%
Chromium is an essential micronutrient. The human body requires small amounts of chromium to process carbohydrate, fat, and protein obtained from food. Moreover, studies suggest it can help insulin work more efficiently. (28) Insulin is a hormone necessary for carrying glucose molecules from the bloodstream to the cells.
Taking a chromium supplement may also help with weight loss. (29)
18. Copper (As Gluconate) 500µg 50%
Copper is an essential nutrient that your body requires to make red blood cells, maintain the body’s infection-fighting mechanism, and keep your bones strong. (30,31)
19. COQ10 (Ubiquinone) 5 mg No RDA
CoQ10 or ubiquinone is an essential substance that your cells require for producing energy. It has a powerful antioxidant activity that helps protect the cells from oxidative damages.
CoQ10 helps (32)
- Improve heart function by increasing energy production and promoting contractility of heart muscles.
- Prevent oxidation of the so-called “bad” cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins).
- Protect the brain cells from oxidative damages and ensures a regular supply of energy.
- Reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, the accumulation of fats and inflammation in the inner walls of the blood vessels. (33)
- Lower blood pressure by preserving nitric oxide (NO). NO is necessary for relaxing blood vessels. Low NO level is a major risk factor for elevated blood pressure. (34)
20. Iodine (Potassium Iodide) 150µg 100%
Iodine is a mineral that your body requires to make thyroid hormones. (35) When your body does not get enough iodine, the thyroid gland becomes larger to produce sufficient hormones. This can lead to a condition called goitre.
If a pregnant woman does not eat enough iodine, she may have elevated blood pressure. In addition, iodine deficiency during pregnancy can affect the baby’s brain development.
21. Lutein (Marigold) 10mg No RDA
Popularly known as the “eye vitamin”, lutein is a yellow to reddish pigment commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Interestingly, the lens of human eyes also contains lutein. (36)
Lutein is a powerful antioxidant. It acts as a light filter and protects the lens from free radicals. (37)
22. Magnesium (As Gluconate) 13mg 4%
Magnesium is a found in the human body. Your body requires magnesium for a number of reasons. (38)
For example, it is necessary for the stability of the DNA, a molecule that carries genetic instructions. More than 300 different types of enzymes that are involved in processing fats and glucose, and repairing the DNA need magnesium.
Together, magnesium is essential for the proper functioning of the brain, heart, and muscles. Early evidence suggests magnesium may play a crucial role in the regulation of mood and sleep-wake cycle. (39,40)
23. Manganese (As Gluconate) 2mg 100%
Manganese is a mineral that your body uses in a number of different biochemical reactions.
It plays key roles in growth and development of the body and regulation of nerve function. In addition, manganese helps maintain the health of the digestive system, reproductive organs, and the body’s infection-fighting mechanism. Many biochemical reactions that are associated with energy production in the body also need manganese. (41)
24. PABA (4-Aminobenzoic acid) 6mg No RDA
PABA, an acronym for para-amino benzoic acid or 4-Aminobenzoic acid, is a vitamin-like chemical that is naturally found in the body. The body uses PABA to make folic acid (vitamin B9). (42) When applied to the skin, PABA protects the skin from sunlight damages.
25. Potassium (As Citrate) 110mg 5.5%
Potassium is one of the most abundant salts found in the cells. Together with sodium, it is key to maintaining water balance in the body. Likewise, it also plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal acidity/alkalinity of the blood and other fluids in the body. (43)
In addition, potassium is necessary for proper communication between the brain cells. In the heart, it helps regulate the heart rate.
People with elevated blood pressure may be able to lower the blood pressure by taking more potassium. (44)
26. Selenium (Sodium Selenite) 50µg 90%
Selenium is a chemical that humans require in small amounts for a healthy body. It helps:
27. Zinc (As Gluconate) 7mg 70%
Zinc is a trace element that boosts the body’s infection-fighting mechanism and affects how we form memories and learn new things. (48,49)
Moreover, zinc is shown to reduce the duration of illness and severity of symptoms in kids with diarrhoea. (50)
People with the common cold may experience less severe symptoms and recover faster if they take a zinc supplement within 24 hours after the first symptoms appear. (51)
When applied to a wound, zinc can help speed up recovery by reducing swelling, controlling bacterial growth, and promoting wound closure. (52)
28. Zeaxanthin (Marigold) 2.5 mg No RDA
Zeaxanthin is a pigment that is found in plants such as corn and saffron. It is also found in the lens of human eyes. (53)
It has potent antioxidant activities and protects the retina and lens from ultraviolet light. (54) In fact, supplementation with zeaxanthin, lutein, and omega-3 fatty acids can improve or even prevent vision problems in the elderly people. (55)
PLUS ** Super Green Boost 150mg ** (No RDA)
29. Ginseng Panax C.A. Meyer 125mg
Ginseng Panax C.A. Meyer is a herb with numerous health benefits and a long history of use. (56)
It is a potent antioxidant that is shown to fight fatigue (57) and increase elasticity of the blood vessels. (58) In addition, it helps reduce blood glucose levels and blood fat levels. (59)
30. Aloe vera powder 2mg
Aloe vera or Aloe barbadensis is a herb with a long history of use in numerous ailments. It has powerful anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. (60)
In addition, aloe vera is also an antioxidant that speeds up wound recovery. (61) Applying aloe vera to the skin in hospitalized patients can help prevent bedsores. (62)
Aloe vera contains barbaloin, which relieves constipation. (63) One animal study suggests that aloe vera can boost the rate of ulcer healing in the stomach. (64)
31. Alfalfa powder 2mg
Alfalfa is a legume that is also considered a herb due to its numerous health benefits. Its scientific name is Medicago sativa. It is a rich source of vitamin K, vitamin C, copper, manganese and folate.
Alfalfa may be effective in lowering the blood levels of unhealthy fats. (65) Most notably, it reduces only the unhealthy fats but has no effect on the levels of healthy fats. (66)
32. Broccoli powder 2mg
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italica) is a cruciferous vegetable. It is a rich source of vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin A, folate, and potassium.
Most notably, broccoli contains an incredibly healthy substance called Sulforaphane. Sulforaphane has potent antibacterial activity and is shown to be effective in eradicating ulcer-causing bacteria in the stomach and the intestines. (67)
Studies also suggest sulforaphane can boost your brain function, reduce the symptoms of autism, and reduce the risk of certain cancers. (68,69,70)
Broccoli powder has powerful antioxidant activity and may be used as a natural antioxidant for certain baked or fried foods. (71)
33. Citrus Bioflavonoids powder 2mg
Citrus bioflavonoids are a group of molecules that are obtained from citrus fruits like mandarins, tangerines, oranges, lemons, and limes.
They prevent cellular damages due to free radicals, reduce swelling, protect from cancer, reduce blood fats, and control blood sugar levels. (72)
34. Green coffee bean powder 2mg
Green coffee bean powder is prepared from unroasted coffee seeds. It contains a chemical called chlorogenic acid, which has glucose-lowering, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity activities. (73)
In addition, it reduces the blood levels of fats and their absorption from the digestive tract. (74) This is one of the ways green coffee bean powder promotes weight loss. (75)
35. Grape seed powder 2mg
Grape seeds are a rich source of beneficial compounds called proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are powerful antioxidants; they protect cells from damages caused by free radicals. (76)
Proanthocyanidins reduce blood pressure and the blood levels of fats. (77,78) In addition, they also reduce swelling and improve ability of the cells to use insulin, a hormone that carries glucose molecules from the bloodstream to the cells. (79,80)
36. Green tea powder 2mg
Green tea contains potent antioxidants, polyphenols. Epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG), one of the polyphenols, has benefits for joint health.
EGCG helps prevent and alleviate the symptoms of joint disease through its anti-inflammatory activity. It works by blocking the activity of inflammatory substances in the cells of cartilage. (81)
EGCG also improves acne and reduces blood glucose levels. (82,83)
37. Lecithin powder 2mg
Lecithin, also called phosphatidylcholine, is a naturally occurring fatty substance in the human body. Eggs, soy, or sunflower seeds are the major sources of commercially available lecithin supplements.
Your body makes a brain chemical called acetylcholine by using lecithin. (84) Acetylcholine plays key roles in the formation of memories and the proper functioning of the muscles. For this reason, taking lecithin can help improve memory and thinking skills. (85)
Lecithin reduces the absorption of cholesterol from the digestive tract and its levels in the blood. (86)
38. Lycopene powder 2mg
Lycopene is a red or pink pigment naturally found in fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, guava, papaya, asparagus, and parsley. It has a powerful antioxidant activity that protects cells from damages by free radicals.
Lycopene has been found to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women, improve eye health in diabetics, and promote heart health as well as reduce inflammation. (87,88,89)
Likewise, lycopene consumption can improve the appearance of the skin and reduce the risk of acne in young people. (90) One study scientists conducted using rats suggests lycopene strengthens bones. (91)
39. Psyllium powder 2mg
Psyllium powder is prepared from the seeds of the plant called Plantago. It has excellent water-absorbing property, which makes it an effective laxative.
Psyllium has several other benefits. It:
40. Red Beet powder 2mg
Red beet or beetroot (scientific name: Beta vulgaris) is a highly nutritious plant that has widespread health benefits. It contains copious amounts of folate, manganese, vitamin C, and antioxidants; alpha-lipoic acid and betalains.
Consuming beetroot juice lower blood pressure and increases the levels of Nitric oxide (NO), which improves breathing. (96,97)
Alpha-lipoic acid in red beet increases ability of the cells to use insulin and improves nerve damages caused by high blood glucose levels. (98,99)
In addition, beetroot consumption can make your muscles strong and delay fatigue while exercising. (100)
41. Spirulina powder 2mg
Spirulina is a microscopic alga that is high in nutrition and offers a range of health benefits. It contains several ingredients that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-enhancing properties. (101)
The antioxidants protect cells from damages caused by free radicals and the anti-inflammatory ingredients reduce swelling.
Regular consumption of spirulina reduces body weight, improves blood pressure, and makes the blood vessels more elastic. (102)
Human studies show spirulina is effective in lowering the blood levels of the “bad” cholesterol. (103)
PLUS ** Amino Acid Boost Blend** 150mg
42. L-proline 15mg
L-proline is an amino acid that your body uses to make proteins. Most notably, L-proline is necessary for making a protein called collagen. (104) Collagen is found mainly in the skin, bones, and a fibrous tissue that connects muscles to the bones.
L-proline plays key roles in wound healing, preventing cellular damages from free radicals, and maintaining the body’s infection-fighting mechanism. (105) It is important for making other molecules in the body, such as arginine and glutamate.
Studies involving rats show proline reduces blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels. (106)
43. L-alanine 15mg
L-alanine is a type of amino acid that your body can make on its own. It plays key roles in processing sugar, acid, and certain vitamins in the body.
In addition, it boosts the body’s infection-fighting mechanism. The muscles and the brain use energy provided by alanine. (107)
44. L-glutamic acid 15mg
L-glutamic acid is an amino acid. In the body, it is found in the form of glutamate. Glutamate in the brain is responsible for firing nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. This makes glutamate the major excitatory neurotransmitter. (108)
The brain can make another brain chemical called gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glutamate. (109) Unlike glutamate, GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that blocks the firing of nerve impulses.
In addition, glutamate is responsible for generating energy from the breakdown of glucose molecules.
45. L-arginine 15mg
L-arginine is an amino acid that the body uses to make proteins.
In addition, L-arginine releases a chemical called nitric oxide (NO) in the blood. NO is necessary for relaxing blood vessels.
For this reason, L-arginine supplementation can help reduce chest pain in people who have limited blood supply to the heart. (110) and lower blood pressure. (111)
46. L-lysine 15mg
L-lysine is an amino acid that your body cannot make on its own. Therefore, you need to get it from your diet. Red meats, fish, and dairy products are the rich source of this amino acid.
Lysine supplementation lowers blood pressure, relieves the symptoms of anxiety, and reduces blood glucose levels. (112,113,114)
47. L-leucine 15mg
L-leucine is an amino acid that your body cannot make on its own.
In addition to making proteins in the body, L-leucine is involved in regulating blood sugar levels, keeping the muscle and bone tissue healthy, healing of wounds, and the production of growth hormone. (115)
Daily L-leucine supplementation enhances muscle mass and physical performance in older adults. (116)
48. L-valine 15mg
L-valine is an amino acid that your body cannot make on its own. It keeps your muscle and tissues healthy and contributes to their growth and repair.
L-valine is essential for energy production in the body. In addition, it also plays key roles in maintaining the mood and health of the brain and nerves. (117)
49. L-isoleucine 15mg
L-isoleucine is an amino acid that your body cannot make on its own. It is similar to another amino acid, L-leucine.
Studies show isoleucine contributes to lowering of blood-glucose levels. (118) In addition, one study involving children with diarrhea found that isoleucine along with oral rehydration salts (ORS) reduces the volume of stool. (119)
50. L-carnitine 15mg
L-carnitine is an amino acid that is naturally found in the body. It is involved in releasing energy from the fats in your diet.
The body converts ingested L-carnitine into acetyl-L-carnitine, which prevents cartilage degradation and helps reduce pain associated with degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. (120)
It works primarily by reducing the serum levels of pro-inflammatory substances. (121)
- Vignisse J, Sambon M, Gorlova A, et al. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice exposed to predation without affecting brain thiamine diphosphate levels. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2017;82:126-136.
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Riboflavin.
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Niacinamide.
- Jung S, Kim MK, Choi BY. The long-term relationship between dietary pantothenic acid (vitamin B) intake and C-reactive protein concentration in adults aged 40 years and older. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(9):806-816.
- Stover PJ, Field MS. Vitamin B-6. Adv Nutr. 2015 Jan; 6(1): 132–133.
- Hellmann H, Mooney S. Vitamin B6: a molecule for human health?. Molecules. 2010;15(1):442-59.
- Zempleni Z, Wijeratne SSK, Hassan YI. Biotin. Biofactors. 2009 Jan-Feb; 35(1): 36–46.
- Larner J. D-Chiro-Inositol – Its Functional Role in Insulin Action and its Deficit in Insulin Resistance. Int J Exp Diabetes Res. 2002; 3(1): 47–60.
- Gianfranco C, Vittorio U, Silvia B, Francesco D. Myo-inositol in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011;26(7):526-30.
- Guilland JC, Aimone-gastin I. [Vitamin B9]. Rev Prat. 2013;63(8):1079, 1081-4.
- Kunisawa J, et al. A Pivotal Role of Vitamin B9 in the Maintenance of Regulatory T Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e32094.
- National Institutes of Health. Vitamin B12.
- NHS, UK. Vitamin B12.
- Bousselamti A, et al. Psychomotor regression due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Pan Afr Med J. 2018; 30: 152.
- Chang Z, Huo L, Li P, Wu Y, Zhang P. Ascorbic acid provides protection for human chondrocytes against oxidative stress. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12(5):7086-92.
- Mcalindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis?. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39(4):648-56.
- Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Aug; 4(4): 827–836.
- Harwood RH, Sahota O, Gaynor K, Masud T, Hosking DJ. A randomised, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens in elderly women after hip fracture: The Nottingham Neck of Femur (NONOF) Study. Age Ageing. 2004;33(1):45-51.
- Meydani SN, Lewis ED, Wu D. Perspective: Should Vitamin E Recommendations for Older Adults Be Increased?. Adv Nutr. 2018;9(5):533-543.
- NHS, UK. Vitamin. Vitamin E.
- DiNicolantonio JJ, et. al. The health benefits of vitamin K. Open Heart. 2015; 2(1): e000300.
- Maresz K. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Feb; 14(1): 34–39.
- Manna P, Kalita J. Beneficial role of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and the reduced risk of type 2 diabetes: A review. Nutrition. 2016;32(7-8):732-9.
- Beto JA. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging. Clin Nutr Res. 2015 Jan; 4(1): 1–8.
- Wiedeman MA, et al. Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle. Nutrients. 2018 Oct; 10(10): 1513.
- Hasselmo ME. The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Dec; 16(6): 710–715.
- Craig SA. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(3):539-49.
- A scientific review: the role of chromium in insulin resistance. Diabetes Educ. 2004;Suppl:2-14.
- Onakpoya I, Posadzki P, Ernst E. Chromium supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Obes Rev. 2013;14(6):496-507.
- Bonham M, et al. The immune system as a physiological indicator of
marginal copper status?. British Journal of Nutrition (2002), 87, 393–403.
- Pepa GD, Brandi ML. Microelements for bone boost: the last but not the least. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2016 Sep-Dec; 13(3): 181–185.
- Maraver JG, et al. Coenzyme Q10 Therapy. Mol Syndromol. 2014 Jul; 5(3-4): 187–197.
- Witting PK, Pettersson K, Letters J, Stocker R. Anti-atherogenic effect of coenzyme Q10 in apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(3-4):295-305.
- Hermann M, Flammer A, Lüscher TF. Nitric oxide in hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;8(12 Suppl 4):17-29.
- Better Health Channel. Iodine.
- Vu HT, Robman L, Hodge A, Mccarty CA, Taylor HR. Lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of cataract: the Melbourne visual impairment project. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47(9):3783-6.
- Roberts RL, Green J, Lewis B. Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health. Clin Dermatol. 2009;27(2):195-201.
- De baaij JH, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2015;95(1):1-46.
- Tarleton EK, Littenberg B. Magnesium intake and depression in adults. J Am Board Fam Med. 2015;28(2):249-56.
- Cao Y, et al. Magnesium Intake and Sleep Disorder Symptoms: Findings from the Jiangsu Nutrition Study of Chinese Adults at Five-Year Follow-Up. Nutrients. 2018 Oct; 10(10): 1354.
- Chen P, Bornhorst J, Aschner M. Manganese metabolism in humans. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018;23:1655-1679.
- Lu Z, et al. Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase Enhances Thermotolerance of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus. PLOS One. 2014 March.
- Kowey P.R. (2002) The Role of Potassium. In: Lobo R.A., Crosignani P.G., Paoletti R., Bruschi F. (eds) Women’s Health and Menopause. Medical Science Symposia Series, vol 17. Springer, Boston, MA
- Aburto NJ, et al. Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ. 2013; 346: f1378.
- Solovyev ND. Importance of selenium and selenoprotein for brain function: From antioxidant protection to neuronal signalling. J Inorg Biochem. 2015;153:1-12.
- Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet. 2000;356(9225):233-41.
- Hoffman PR, Berry MJ. The influence of selenium on immune responses. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov; 52(11): 1273–1280.
- Kaltenberg J, Plum LM, Ober-blöbaum JL, Hönscheid A, Rink L, Haase H. Zinc signals promote IL-2-dependent proliferation of T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40(5):1496-503.
- Pan E, et al. Vesicular Zinc Promotes Presynaptic and Inhibits Postsynaptic Long-Term Potentiation of Mossy Fiber-CA3 Synapse. Neuron. 2011;71(6):1116-1126.
- World Health Organization. Zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea.
- Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2):CD001364.
- Agren MS. Studies on zinc in wound healing. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1990;154:1-36.
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Zeaxanthin.
- Alvarado-Ramos KE, et al. Dietary Consumption of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Panama: A Cross-Sectional Study. Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Sep; 2(9): nzy064.
- Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;309(19):2005-15.
- Yun TK. Brief Introduction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. J Korean Med Sci 2001; 16(Suppl): S3-5.
- Kim HG, et al. Antifatigue Effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLOS One. 2013 April.
- Jovanovski E, Jenkins A, Dias AG, et al. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and its isolated ginsenosides and polysaccharides on arterial stiffness in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(5):469-72.
- Chung SI, et al. Aged ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) reduces blood glucose levels and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2016; 25(1): 267–273.
- Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1989;79(11):559-62.
- Rodrigues LLO, De oliveira ACL, Tabrez S, et al. Mutagenic, antioxidant and wound healing properties of Aloe vera. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;227:191-197.
- Hekmatpou D, Mehrabi F, Rahzani K, Aminiyan A. The effect of Aloe Vera gel on prevention of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in the orthopedic wards: a randomized triple-blind clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18(1):264.
- Ishii Y, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies of aloe. V. Mechanism of cathartic effect. (4). Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17(5):651-3.
- Eamlamnam K, et al. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr 7; 12(13): 2034–2039.
- Mölgaard J, Von schenck H, Olsson AG. Alfalfa seeds lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations in patients with type II hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis. 1987;65(1-2):173-9.
- Malinow MR, et al. Cholesterol and bile acid balance in Macaca fascicularis. Effects of alfalfa saponins. J Clin Invest. 1981 Jan; 67(1): 156–162.
- Mirmiran P, et al. A comparative study of broccoli sprouts powder and standard triple therapy on cardiovascular risk factors following H.pylori eradication: a randomized clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014; 13: 64.
- Shirai Y, et al. Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0127244.
- Lynch R, et al. Sulforaphane from Broccoli Reduces Symptoms of Autism: A Follow-up Case Series from a Randomized Double-blind Study. Glob Adv Health Med. 2017; 6: 2164957X17735826.
- Tortorella SM, et al. Dietary Sulforaphane in Cancer Chemoprevention: The Role of Epigenetic Regulation and HDAC Inhibition. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Jun 1; 22(16): 1382–1424.
- Banerjee R, Verma AK, Das AK, Rajkumar V, Shewalkar AA, Narkhede HP. Antioxidant effects of broccoli powder extract in goat meat nuggets. Meat Sci. 2012;91(2):179-84.
- Gupta A, Jacobson GA, Burgess JR, et al. Citrus bioflavonoids dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition compared with gliptin antidiabetic medications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;503(1):21-25.
- Tajik N, Tajik M, Mack I, Enck P. The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(7):2215-2244.
- Meng S, et al. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 801457.
- Onakpoya I, et al. The Use of Green Coffee Extract as a Weight Loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011; 2011: 382852.
- Yang L, et al. Proanthocyanidins against Oxidative Stress: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Applications. BioMed Research International. 2018 March.
- Pons Z, Margalef M, Bravo FI, Arola-arnal A, Muguerza B. Acute administration of single oral dose of grape seed polyphenols restores blood pressure in a rat model of metabolic syndrome: role of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(2):749-758.
- Bladé C, Arola L, Salvadó MJ. Hypolipidemic effects of proanthocyanidins and their underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54(1):37-59.
- Terra X, Pallarés V, Ardèvol A, et al. Modulatory effect of grape-seed procyanidins on local and systemic inflammation in diet-induced obesity rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22(4):380-7.
- Serrano AP, et al. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Improve White Adipose Tissue Expansion during Diet-Induced Obesity Development in Rats. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep; 19(9): 2632.
- Singh R, Ahmed S, Islam N, Goldberg VM, Haqqi TM. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in human chondrocytes: suppression of nuclear factor kappaB activation by degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(8):2079-86.
- Yoon JY, Kwon HH, Min SU, Thiboutot DM, Suh DH. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves acne in humans by modulating intracellular molecular targets and inhibiting P. acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(2):429-40.
- Alves ferreira M, Oliveira gomes AP, Guimarães de moraes AP, et al. Green tea extract outperforms metformin in lipid profile and glycaemic control in overweight women: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2017;22:1-6.
- ScienceDirect. Lecithin.
- Poly C, et al. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec; 94(6): 1584–1591.
- Spilburg CA, Goldberg AC, Mcgill JB, et al. Fat-free foods supplemented with soy stanol-lecithin powder reduce cholesterol absorption and LDL cholesterol. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(5):577-81.
- Cui Y, Shikany JM, Liu S, Shagufta Y, Rohan TE. Selected antioxidants and risk of hormone receptor-defined invasive breast cancers among postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(4):1009-18.
- Icel E, Icel A, Uçak T, et al. The Effects Of Lycopene On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Optic Neuropathy. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2018;:1-15.
- Petyaev IM, Dovgalevsky PY, Klochkov VA, et al. Effect of lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular parameters and markers of inflammation and oxidation in patients with coronary vascular disease. Food Sci Nutr. 2018;6(6):1770-1777.
- Chernyshova MP, Pristenskiy DV, Lozbiakova MV, Chalyk NE, Bandaletova TY, Petyaev IM. Systemic and skin-targeting beneficial effects of lycopene-enriched ice cream: A pilot study. J Dairy Sci. 2018.
- Oliveira GR, Vargas-sanchez PK, Fernandes RR, et al. Lycopene influences osteoblast functional activity and prevents femur bone loss in female rats submitted to an experimental model of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. 2018;
- Jovanovski E, Yashpal S, Komishon A, et al. Effect of psyllium (Plantago ovata) fiber on LDL cholesterol and alternative lipid targets, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;
- Noureddin S, Mohsen J, Payman A. Effects of psyllium vs. placebo on constipation, weight, glycemia, and lipids: A randomized trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic constipation. Complement Ther Med. 2018;40:1-7.
- Brum J, Ramsey D, Mcrorie J, Bauer B, Kopecky SL. Meta-Analysis of Usefulness of Psyllium Fiber as Adjuvant Antilipid Therapy to Enhance Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Statins. Am J Cardiol. 2018;122(7):1169-1174.
- Hosseini M, et al. Comparing the Effect of Psyllium Seed on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Omeprazole in Patients With Functional Constipation. J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018; 23: 2515690X18763294.
- Cloes LT, Clifton PM. Effect of beetroot juice on lowering blood pressure in free-living, disease-free adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2012; 11: 106.
- Kroll JL, et al. Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1): e0191030.
- Kamenova P. Improvement of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid. Hormones (Athens). 2006;5(4):251-8.
- Ziegler D, Ametov A, Barinov A, et al. Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2365-70.
- Domínguez R, et al. Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise efforts. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018; 15: 2.
- Finamore A, et al. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 3247528.
- Miczke A, Szulińska M, Hansdorfer-korzon R, et al. Effects of spirulina consumption on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function in overweight hypertensive Caucasians: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20(1):150-6.
- Torres-Duran PV, et al. Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of mexican population: a preliminary report. Lipids Health Dis. 2007; 6: 33.
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Proline.
- Wu G, et al. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition. Amino Acids. 2011 Apr; 40(4): 1053–1063.
- Leal J, Teixeira-santos L, Pinho D, et al. l-proline supplementation improves nitric oxide bioavailability and counteracts the blood pressure rise induced by angiotensin II in rats. Nitric Oxide. 2018;
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Alanine.
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Glutamic acid
- Petroff OA. GABA and glutamate in the human brain. Neuroscientist. 2002;8(6):562-73.
- Tripathi P, Chandra M, Misra MK. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2(4):231-7.
- Vasdev S, Gill V. The antihypertensive effect of arginine. Int J Angiol. 2008 Spring; 17(1): 7–22.
- Vuvor F, et al. Effect of lysine supplementation on hypertensive men and women in selected peri-urban community in Ghana. BMC Nutrition. 2017;3(67)
- Smriga M, et al. Lysine fortification reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in Northwest Syria. PNAS June 1, 2004 101 (22) 8285-8288.
- Kalogeropoulou D, et al. Lysine ingestion markedly attenuates the glucose response to ingested glucose without a change in insulin response. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;90(2).
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Leucine.
- Ispoglou T, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of L-Leucine-enriched amino-acid mixtures on body composition and physical performance in men and women aged 65–75 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb; 70(2): 182–188.
- US National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. Valine.
- Doi M, Yamaoka I, Fukunaga T, Nakayama M. Isoleucine, a potent plasma glucose-lowering amino acid, stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312(4):1111-7.
- Alam NH, Raqib R, Ashraf H, et al. L-isoleucine-supplemented oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: a randomized controlled trial. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011;29(3):183-90.
- Bianchi E, Di cesare mannelli L, Menicacci C, Lorenzoni P, Aglianò M, Ghelardini C. Prophylactic role of acetyl-l-carnitine on knee lesions and associated pain in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Life Sci. 2014;106(1-2):32-9.
- Malek mahdavi A, Mahdavi R, Kolahi S. Effects of l-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Inflammatory Factors and Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzymes in Females with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016;35(7):597-603.